• Fahruddin Universitas Haluoleo
  • Herlina Usman Universitas Negeri Jakarta
  • Sintowati Rini Utami Universitas Negeri Jakarta
Keywords: dialect politeness, politeness forms, politeness functions, politeness strategies, cooperative principles, communication culture practices.


The way someone shows politeness in speech acts is not only seen from a macro understanding of how speech participants can keep each other's face and maintain maxims with the inclusion of linguistic elements. Politeness of speech acts should be seen and understood on a micro level; more specifically in the context of language use in a language community as a cultural practice, both collectively and individually. Using the ethnographic perspective of communication, the current study investigates the politeness of speech acts in the context of guidance and counselling communication interactions in senior high schools, in the province of Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. The results of the analysis of S-P-E-A-K-I-N-G showed that the politeness of speech acts that appeared in the guidance and counselling process was mediated pragmatically by the use of local dialects. To find the forms, functions, strategies, and cooperative principles of speech act politeness that exist in the speech process, further analysis is carried out using coding techniques which also aims to construct a concept. The results of the analysis showed three forms of politeness, four functions of politeness, six strategies of politeness, and two principles of cooperative principles. The current study understands that violating the principle of cooperation in the context of communication in this study is actually a courtesy and that is why a polite speech act should be relied on the context in which a communication happened. This understanding was constructed theoretically then labelled as 'Dialect politeness' as a cultural communication practice.


Alagözlü, N., & Sahin, S. (2011). Silence as a multi-purpose speech act in Turkish political discourse. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 15, 3008–3013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.233

Al-hindawi, F. H. & Kamil, S. I. (2017). The Pragmatics of Manipulation in British and American Political Debates. Anchor Academic Publishing

Ashizuka, A., Mima, T., Sawamoto, N., Aso, T., Oishi, N., Sugihara, G., … Fukuyama, H. (2015). Functional relevance of the precuneus in verbal politeness. Neuroscience Research, Vol. 91, 48–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2014.10.009

Ball, C. (2004). Repertoires of registers: dialect in Japanese discourse. Language & Communication, 24(4), 355–380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langcom.2004.01.004

Bassetti, C., & Liberman, K. (2021). Making talk together. Language & Communication, Vol. 80, 95–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langcom.2021.06.002

Beňuš, Š., Gravano, A., Levitan, R., Levitan, S., Willson, L., Hirschberg, J. (2014). Entrainment, Dominance and Alliance in Supreme Court Hearings. Knowledge Based Systems, Vol. 71, 3-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.knosys.2014.05.020

Beňuš, Š., Gravano, A., & Hirschberg, J. (2011). Pragmatic aspects of temporal accommodation in turn-taking. Journal of Pragmatics, 43(12), 3001–3027. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2011.05.011

Birdsong, D. (1989). Metalinguistic Performance and Interlinguistic Competence. Springer -Verlag

Borsook, D., Maleki, N., & Burstein, R. (2015). Migrane. Dalam Michael J. Zigmond, Lewis P. Rowland, & Joseph T. Coyle, (Eds.). Neurobiology of Brain Disorders, 693-708. Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2009-0-63918-0

Brennan, S. E. (1998). The Grounding Problem in Conversations With and Through Computers. Dalam Susan R. Fussell, Roger J. Kreuz (Eds.), Social and cognitive psychological approaches to interpersonal communication-First Edition. Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315805917

Brown, P. (2015). Politeness and language. In J. Wright (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences - 2nd ed., Vol. 18, 326-330. Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-043076-7/03044-8

Brown, L., Winter, B., Idemaru, K., & Grawunder, S. (2014). Phonetics and politeness: Perceiving Korean honorific and non-honorific speech through phonetic cues. Journal of Pragmatics, Vol. 66, 45–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2014.02.011

Bruneau, T. J. (1973). Communicative Silences: Forms and Functions. Journal of Communication, 23(1), 17–46. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1973.tb00929.x

Buzasi, K. (2015). Languages, communication potential and generalized trust in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence based on the Afrobarometer Survey. Social Science Research, Vol. 49, 141–155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2014.08.005

Cappelen, H. & Lepore, E. (2007). Language Turned On Itself: The Semantics and Pragmatics of Metalinguistic Discourse. Oxford University Press

Chen, R. (2001). Self-politeness: A proposal. Journal of Pragmatics, 33(1), 87–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(99)00124-1

Cheung, F. M., Shu Fai Cheung, Jianxin Zhang, Leung, K., Leong, F., & Kuang Huiyeh. (2008). Relevance of Openness as a Personality Dimension in Chinese Culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39(1), 81–108. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0022022107311968

Chui, K. (2013). Bilateral Account of Multimodal Grounding of Meaning. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 97, 405–413. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.252

Clark, H. H. & Brennan, S. E. (1991). Grounding in Communication. Dalam Resnick, L. B.; Levine, J. M. (Eds.), Perspectives on socially shared cognition. American Psychological Association

Clark, H. H. & Schaefer, E. F. (1989). Contributing to Discourse. Cognitive Science-A multidisciplinary Journal, 13(2), 259-294. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog1302_7

Clarke, A., Meredith, P. J., Rose, T. A., & Daubney, M. (2018). A role for epistemic trust in speech-language pathology: A tutorial paper. Journal of Communication Disorders, Vol. 72, 54–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcomdis.2018.02.004

Corazza, G. E. & Agnoli, S. (2020). Personality: Openness. Encyclopedia of Creativity (Third Edition), 338-344. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-809324-5.23691-2

Corps, R. E., Crossley, A., Gambi, C., & Pickering, M. J. (2018). Early preparation during turn-taking: Listeners use content predictions to determine what to say but not when to say it. Cognition, Vol. 175, 77–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.01.015

Culpeper, J. (2012). (Im)politeness: Three Issues. Journal of Pragmatics, 44(9), 1128-1133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2012.05.011

Culpeper, J., & Tantucci, V. (2021). The Principle of (Im)politeness Reciprocity. Journal of Pragmatics, Vol. 175, 146–164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2021.01.008

Gordon, C., & Luke, M. (2012). Discursive negotiation of face via email: Professional identity development in school counseling supervision. Linguistics and Education, 23(1), 112–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2011.05.002

Gramling, C. J., Durieux, B. N., Clarfeld, L. A., Javed, A., Matt, J. E., Manukyan, V., Braddish, T., Wong, A., Wills, J., Hirsch, L., Straton, J., Cheney, N., Eppstein, M. J., Rizzo, D. M., & Gramling, R. (2021). Epidemiology of Connectional Silence in specialist serious illness conversations. Patient Education and Counseling. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2021.10.032

Gravano, A., & Hirschberg, J. (2011). Turn-taking cues in task-oriented dialogue. Computer Speech & Language, 25(3), 601–634. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csl.2010.10.003

Gretenkort, T. & Tylén, K. (2021). The dynamics of politeness: An experimental account, Journal of Pragmatics, Vol. 185, 118-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2021.09.003

Gumperz, J. J. & Hymes, D. H. (1972). Directions in Sociolinguistics: The Ethnography of Communication. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

Guydish, A. J., & Fox Tree, J. E. (2021). Good conversations: Grounding, convergence, and richness. New Ideas in Psychology, Vol. 63, 100877. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.newideapsych.2021.100877

Hakes, D. T. (1980). The Development of Metalinguistic Abilities in Children. Springer-Verlag

Haugh, M., & Hinze, C. (2003). A metalinguistic approach to deconstructing the concepts of “face” and “politeness” in Chinese, English and Japanese. Journal of Pragmatics, 35(10-11), 1581–1611. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(03)00049-3

Herazo, J. D. (2021). Mediating spoken meaning-making in genre-based lessons: The role of metalinguistic concepts. System, Vol. 96, 102398. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102398

Hickey, L. & Stewart, M. (2005) (Eds.). Politeness in Europe. Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Hotchin, V. & West, K. (2021). Open to Contact? Increased State Openness Can Lead to Greater Interest in Contact With Diverse Groups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F01461672211030125

Hu, J., & Ran, Y. (2021). Book review. Journal of Pragmatics, Vol. 180, 118–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2021.04.035

Hymes, D. H. (1996). Ethnography, Linguistics, Narrative Inequality - Toward an Understanding of Voice. Taylor & Francis Inc.

Hymes. D. H. (1962). The Ethnography of Speaking. Dalam J. Fishman (Ed.), Anthropology and Human Behavior. The Anthropological Society of Washington, Washington D.C.

Ide, S. (1989). Formal forms and discernment: two neglected aspects of universals of linguistic politeness. Multilingua - Journal of Cross-Cultural and Interlanguage Communication, 8(2-3), 223–248. https://doi.org/10.1515/mult.1989.8.2-3.223

Isosävi, J. (2020). Cultural outsiders' reported adherence to Finnish and French politeness norms. Journal of Pragmatics, Vol. 155, 177-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2019.10.015

Ito, T. (2022). Effects of general trust as a personality trait on willingness to communicate in a second language. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 185, 111286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2021.111286

Jaworski, A. (2006). Silence. Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics, 377–379. https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/00391-6

Jensen, J. V. (1973). Communicative Functions of Silence. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 30(3), 249–257. http://www.jstor.org/stable/42582250

Josipovic, Z. (2019). Chapter 12 - Nondual awareness: Consciousness-as-such as non-representational reflexivity. Dalam Narayanan Srinivasan, (Ed.), Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 244, 273-298. Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.10.021

Karlsson, L., Kjisik, F., & Nordlund, J. (2007). Language counselling: A critical and integral component in promoting an autonomous community of learning. System, 35(1), 46–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2006.10.006

Kennedy, L. D. (1997). Communication: A Way to Improve Continuity of Care? Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association (1996), 37(1), 8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1086-5802(16)30184-X

Khouzaimi, H., Laroche, R., & Lefèvre, F. (2018). A methodology for turn-taking capabilitiesenhancement in Spoken Dialogue Systems using Reinforcement Learning. Computer Speech & Language, Vol. 47, 93-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csl.2017.07.006

Kogure, M. (2007). Nodding and smiling in silence during the loop sequence of backchannels in Japanese conversation. Journal of Pragmatics, 39(7), 1275–1289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2007.02.011

Koudenburg, N., Postmes, T., & Gordijn, E. H. (2011). Disrupting the flow: How brief silences in group conversations affect social needs. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47(2), 512–515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2010.12.006

Koyama, W. (2001). Dialectics of dialect and dialectology: culture, structure and ideology of “the Kyôto dialect” of Japanese. Journal of Pragmatics, 33(10), 1571–1600. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(01)00004-2

Lee, C. L., Chen, Y., & Tan, G. L. (2013). Silence and face-work in two chinese TV talk shows. Discourse, Context & Media, 2(1), 52–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcm.2013.01.002

Levinson, S. C. (2016). Turn-taking in Human Communication – Origins and Implications for Language Processing. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 20(1), 6–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2015.10.010

Liardét, C. L., Black, S., & Bardetta, V. S. (2019). Defining formality: Adapting to the abstract demands of academic discourse. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, Vol. 38, 146-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2019.02.007

Lieck, R., & Rohrmeier, M. (2021). Discretisation and continuity: The emergence of symbols in communication. Cognition, Vol. 215, 104787. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2021.104787

Lim, S., & Song, J. A. (2020). Strategies to improve continuity maintenance for people with dementia: a rapid realist review. Public Health, Vol. 181, 46–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2019.11.024

Magee, C. S. P., & Massoud, T. G. (2010). Openness and internal conflict. Journal of Peace Research, 48(1), 59–72. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0022343310388834

Mapson, R., & Major, G. (2021). Interpreters, rapport, and the role of familiarity. Journal of Pragmatics, Vol. 176, 63–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2021.01.020

Matwick, K., & Matwick, K. (2018). Politeness and pseudo-intimacy in a food radio call-in program. Discourse, Context & Media, Vol. 21, 46–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcm.2017.11.006

McKillip, M., Rawls, A., & Barry, C. (2012). Improving College Access: A Review of Research on the Role of High School Counselors. Professional School Counseling, 16(1), 49-58. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F2156759X1201600106

Melinger, A. (2018). Distinguishing languages from dialects: A litmus test using the picture-word interference task. Cognition, Vol. 172, 73–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2017.12.006

Mirza, M., Harrison, E. A., Chang, H.-C., Salo, C. D., & Birman, D. (2017). Making sense of three-way conversations: A qualitative study of cross-cultural counseling with refugee men. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 56, 52–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2016.12.002

Mushin, I., & Gardner, R. (2009). Silence is talk: Conversational silence in Australian Aboriginal talk-in-interaction. Journal of Pragmatics, 41(10), 2033–2052. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2008.11.004

Nakane, I. (2006). Silence and politeness in intercultural communication in university seminars. Journal of Pragmatics, 38(11), 1811–1835. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2006.01.005

Noort, M. C., Reader, T. W., & Gillespie, A. (2021). The sounds of safety silence: Interventions and temporal patterns unmute unique safety voice content in speech. Safety Science, Vol. 140, 105289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2021.105289

Perrin, L., Deshaies, D., & Paradis, C. (2003). Pragmatic functions of local diaphonic repetitions in conversation. Journal of Pragmatics, 35(12), 1843–1860. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(03)00117-6

Piazza, R. (2006). The representation of conflict in the discourse of Italian melodrama. Journal of Pragmatics, 38(12), 2087–2104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2006.03.006

Pietikäinen, K. S. (2018). Silence that speaks: The local inferences of withholding a response in intercultural couples’ conflicts. Journal of Pragmatics, Vol. 129, 76–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2018.03.017

Pizziconi, B. (2006). Politeness. Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics, 679–684. https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/00348-5

Potdevin, D., Clavel, C., & Sabouret, N. (2021). A virtual tourist counselor expressing intimacy behaviors: A new perspective to create emotion in visitors and offer them a better user experience? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 150, 102612. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2021.102612

Puech, C., Dougal, J., Deery, C., Waddell, C., & Mõttus, R. (2019). Openness Is Related to Proenvironmental Behavior Both Within and Across Families. Environment and Behavior, 001391651985329. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0013916519853294

Rieger, C. L. (2003). Repetitions as self-repair strategies in English and German conversations. Journal of Pragmatics, 35(1), 47–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(01)00060-1

Roberts, F., Francis, A. L., & Morgan, M. (2006). The interaction of inter-turn silence with prosodic cues in listener perceptions of “trouble” in conversation. Speech Communication, 48(9), 1079–1093. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.specom.2006.02.001

Rolls, E. T. (2021). Chapter 1 - The neuroscience of emotional disorders. Dalam Kenneth M. Heilman & Stephen E. Nadeau, (Eds.). Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Vol. 183, 1-26. Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-822290-4.00002-5

Roy, D. (2005). Semiotic schemas: A framework for grounding language in action and perception. Artificial Intelligence, 167(1-2), 170–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.artint.2005.04.007

Rubino, A. (2016). Constructing pseudo-intimacy in an Italo-Australian phone-in radio program. Journal of Pragmatics, Vol. 103, 33–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2016.07.009

Savickas, M. L., Nota, L., Rossier, J., Dauwalder, J.-P., Duarte, M. E., Guichard, J., … van Vianen, A. E. M. (2009). Life designing: A paradigm for career construction in the 21st century. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75(3), 239–250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2009.04.004

Schallert, D. L., Chiang, Y. V., Park, Y., Jordan, M. E., Lee, H., Janne Cheng, A.-C., … Song, K. (2009). Being polite while fulfilling different discourse functions in online classroom discussions. Computers & Education, 53(3), 713–725. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2009.04.009

Schneider, S., Nebel, S., Pradel, S., & Rey, G. D. (2015). Introducing the familiarity mechanism: A unified explanatory approach for the personalization effect and the examination of youth slang in multimedia learning. Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 43, 129–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.10.052

Schiffrin, D. (1994). Approaches to Discourse. Cambridge, UK: Blackwell Publisher

Sorlin, S. (2017). The pragmatics of manipulation: Exploiting im/politeness theories. Journal of Pragmatics, 121, 132–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2017.10.002

Sulzer, M. A. (2021). Silence as absence, silence as presence: A discourse analysis of English language arts teachers’ descriptions of classroom silences. Linguistics and Education, 100961. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2021.100961

Surya, M. (1988). Dasar- Dasar Konseling Pendidikan: Konsep dan Teori [Educational Counseling Fundamentals: Concepts and Theories]. Kota Kembang

Taylor, T. J., & van den Herik, J. C. (2021). Metalinguistic exchanges in child language development. Language Sciences, Vol. 88, 101434. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2021.101434

Taylor, C. (2016). Mock Politeness in English and Italian: A corpus-assisted metalanguage analysis. John Benjamins B.V

Terkourafi, M. (2011). From Politeness1 to Politeness2: Tracking norms of im/politeness across time and space. Jornal of Politeness Research, 7(2), 159-185. https://doi.org/10.1515/jplr.2011.009

Tunmer, W. E., Pratt, C., & Herriman, M. L. (1984) (Eds.). Metalinguistic Awareness in Children: Theory, Research, and Implications. Springer-Verlag

Van der Velde, F. (2015). Communication, concepts and grounding. Neural Networks, Vol. 62, 112–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2014.07.003

Watts, R. J. (2003). Politeness: Key Topics in Sociolinguistics. Cambridge University Press

Wouk, F. (1999). Dialect contact and koineization in Jakarta, Indonesia. Language Sciences, 21(1), 61–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0388-0001(98)00013-8

Yamat, H., Fisher, R., & Rich, S. (2013). Young Malaysian Children’s Silence in a Multicultural Classroom. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 103, 1337–1343. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.464

Yokomori, D., Yasui, E., & Hajikano, A. (2018). Registering the receipt of information with a modulated stance: A study of ne -marked other-repetitions in Japanese talk-in-interaction. Journal of Pragmatics, Vol. 123, 167–191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2017.06.012

Article Metrics
Abstract views: 203
PDF downloads: 176
How to Cite
Fahruddin, Usman, H., & Utami, S. R. (2022). DIALECT POLITENESS: IS VIOLATING THE COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLE AN IMPOLITENESS?. Getsempena English Education Journal , 9(2), 111-135. https://doi.org/10.46244/geej.v9i2.1833